This is accomplished by a extremely sensitive regulative system affecting the parathyroid secretory organs, thyroid parafollicular C-cells, kidneys, bone and the GI piece of land Figure 1. How fast would you like to get it? We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails. The precise molecular mechanism behind these observations was made clear upon the cloning of an extracellular calcium-sensing receptor CaSR from bovine parathyroid complementary DNA in [ 16 ].
Parathyroid Hormone and Calcium Metabolism Essay Endocrinology Article Shared by The parathyroid hormone parathormone is concerned with the regulation of calcium metabolism. Parathormone increases serum calcium by: Mobilizing calcium from bone.
Increasing renal calcium reabsorption. Promoting renal conversion of vitamin D to its active metabolite calcitriol which in turn increases calcium absorption from gastrointestinal tract. Serum calcium regulates the secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands by its negative feedback; hypocalcemia stimulates and hypercalcemia suppresses parathormone release.
Calcium is essential for bone formation and neuromuscular function. Parathyroid hormone deficiency results in an increase in blood phosphorus and a decrease in blood calcium levels. Hypocalcemia results in fall of ionized free calcium in the serum and causes a clinical disorder tetany, which is characterized by increased irritability of muscles with spasm of the hands and feet and of the larynx.
Treatment of tetany includes administration of calcium salts, parathormone and vitamin D.
Calcium gluconate IV is the only emergency treatment available for relieving the acute attacks of tetany. Long-term management requires oral calcium supplements in the form of calcium carbonate. It is generally given with vitamin D or its active metabolite calcitriol, which is required for the oral absorption of calcium.
Parathormone is not satisfactory in the management of tetany because it is slow acting and its continuous use leads to tachyphylaxis.
It has to be given parenterally and may cause allergic reactions. There is a continuous remodeling of bone consisting of its breakdown and consequent reformation.
The normal process of bone remodeling is controlled by a balance between osteoblasts cells that form new bone that secrete new bone matrix, and osteoclasts cells that resorb bone that break down bone matrix. This balance is controlled by the hormones calcitonin and parathyroid.
Hypercalcemia is almost always caused by increased entry of calcium into the extracellular fluid from bone resorption or intestinal absorption and decreased renal clearance.
In malignancy, tumor cells products, such as cytokines, act locally to stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption. Drugs used to inhibit bone resorption include: Calcitonin is a hormone produced by C cells of the thyroid gland.Biology Research Paper Format California State University, Bakersfield Department of Biology Writing such papers is similar to the knowledge” should be cited in the text (for example: A previous study found that calcium also impacted germination (Jones and Jones, )).
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Around 99% of the body's calcium is found within the skeleton in the form of calcium salts. The remaining 1% is found in blood and controlled within a very narrow range by an elaborate system of controls to provide for fundamental processes (Marieb & . However, SR calcium release can also be triggered by calcium influx through sodium-calcium exchange, calcium influx via T-type Ca2+ current or through tetrodotoxin-sensitive Ca2+ current, or Inositol (1,4,5)-triphosphate (but not so much in cardiac muscle).
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with the weight of calcium in an average human being kilograms. The continual loss of calcium requires a daily intake of around mg per day.(Washington University, ).
Free Essays words | ( pages) | Preview Male Osteoporosis - Male Osteoporosis Introduction: Osteoporosis is a devastating disease that causes deterioration of bone tissue and an increased risk of bone fractures.
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