Cohen, Ph D J. Gettler, MA, Ph D University of Toronto Mississauga Introduction Historians study the past to understand it on its own terms, to gain insight into how our world has developed, and in order to influence the present. The study of history covers a wide and diverse range of topics, from the history of aboriginal societies, conquistadors, ethnicity, fascism, labour, psychiatry, patterns of settlement and migration, politics, the Renaissance, revolution, to the automobile, slavery, international relations, trade unions, women's studies, and more. The study of history is at the core of any liberal arts education.
Strong princes[ edit ] France was a very decentralised state during the Middle Ages. The authority of the king was more religious than administrative. The 11th century in France marked the apogee of princely power at the expense of the king when states like NormandyFlanders or Languedoc enjoyed a local authority comparable to kingdoms in all but name.
The Capetiansas they were descended from the Robertianswere formerly powerful princes themselves who had successfully unseated the weak and unfortunate Carolingian kings. They were involved in the struggle for power within France as princes, but they also had a religious authority over Roman Catholicism in France as King.
The Capetian kings treated other princes more as enemies and allies than as subordinates: Capetian authority was so weak in some remote places that bandits were the effective power. The Normansthe Plantagenetsthe Lusignansthe Hautevillesthe Ramnulfidsand the House of Toulouse successfully carved lands outside France for themselves.
The most important of these conquests for French history was the Norman Conquest of England by William the Conquerorfollowing the Battle of Hastings and immortalised in the Bayeux Tapestrybecause it linked England to France through Normandy.
Although the Normans were now both vassals of the French kings and their equals as kings of England, their zone of political activity remained centered in France. An example of the legacy left in the Middle East by these nobles is the Krak des Chevaliers ' enlargement by the Counts of Tripoli and Toulouse.
Rise of the monarchy[ edit ] The monarchy overcame the powerful barons over ensuing centuries, and established absolute sovereignty over France in the 16th century. A number of factors contributed to the rise of the French monarchy. The dynasty established by Hugh Capet continued uninterrupted untiland the laws of primogeniture ensured orderly successions of power.
Secondly, the successors of Capet came to be recognised as members of an illustrious and ancient royal house and therefore socially superior to their politically and economically superior rivals.
Thirdly, the Capetians had the support of the Churchwhich favoured a strong central government in France. This alliance with the Church was one of the great enduring legacies of the Capetians. The First Crusade was composed almost entirely of Frankish Princes.
As time went on the power of the King was expanded by conquests, seizures and successful feudal political battles. Hugh's lands extended little beyond the Paris basin; his political unimportance weighed against the powerful barons who elected him.
Many of the king's vassals who included for a long time the kings of England ruled over territories far greater than his own. The loss of other Spanish principalities then followed, as the Spanish marches grew more and more independent.
Hugh Capet decided so in order to have his succession secured. They agreed to end all claims over each other's realm, setting a new stage of Capetian and Ottonian relationships.
Although a king weak in power, Robert II's efforts were considerable. His surviving charters imply he relied heavily on the Church to rule France, much like his father did. Although he lived with a mistress— Bertha of Burgundy —and was excommunicated because of this, he was regarded as a model of piety for monks hence his nickname, Robert the Pious.
Under King Philip Ithe kingdom enjoyed a modest recovery during his extraordinarily long reign — His reign also saw the launch of the First Crusade to regain the Holy Landwhich heavily involved his family although he personally did not support the expedition.
It is from Louis VI reigned —37 onward that royal authority became more accepted. Louis VI was more a soldier and warmongering king than a scholar. The way the king raised money from his vassals made him quite unpopular; he was described as greedy and ambitious and that is corroborated by records of the time.
His regular attacks on his vassals, although damaging the royal image, reinforced the royal power. From onward Louis had the assistance of a skilled religious statesman, Abbot Suger. The abbot was the son of a minor family of knights, but his political advice was extremely valuable to the king.
Louis VI successfully defeated, both military and politically, many of the robber barons. Louis VI frequently summoned his vassals to the court, and those who did not show up often had their land possessions confiscated and military campaigns mounted against them.
This drastic policy clearly imposed some royal authority on Paris and its surrounding areas. When Louis VI died inmuch progress had been made towards strengthening Capetian authority. Powerful vassals paid homage to the French king. However, the couple disagreed over the burning of more than a thousand people in Vitry during the conflict against the Count of Champagne.Cody Choi, visual artist and cultural theorist was born in Seoul in He attended Korea University Sociology major, Korea and Art Center College of Design, Pasadena, California, USA.
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There are numerous ancient historic Asian designations for Southeast Asia, none are geographically consistent with each other.
Names referring to Southeast Asia include Suvarnabhumi or Sovannah Phoum (Golden Land) and Suvarnadvipa (Golden Islands) in Indian tradition, the Lands below the Winds in Arabia and Persia, Nanyang (South Seas) to the Chinese and Nanyo in Japan.
ANTH CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY (3) Provides an introduction to the field of cultural anthropology, the study of human cultural variation throughout the .
History. History Specialist | History Major | History Minor; Combined Degree Program (CDP) in Arts and Education: History (Major), Honours Bachelor of Arts/Master of Teaching; History Courses. History. History Specialist | History Major | History Minor; Combined Degree Program (CDP) in Arts and Education: History (Major), Honours Bachelor of Arts/Master of Teaching; History Courses.