Keep the light for your microscope OFF as much as possible to avoid overheating your Daphnia! Using a clean pipette, carefully transfer a Daphnia and ONE drop of liquid onto a slide.
Technical Handbook for Marine Biodiesel This handbook has been prepared to provide practical information on Biodiesel to owners of recreational boats powered with diesel engines.
The report summarizes research work and field observations collected over the past five years from the U. The handbook is intended to be relatively comprehensive without being overly detailed. References are cited to guide the reader in pursuing specific topics in more depth.
The appendices contain support documentation and articles on marine Biodiesel. Fuel Additive made from Vegetable Oil Biodiesel is a clean-burning diesel fuel additive produced from soybean and other vegetable oils instead of petroleum.
Biodiesel is marketed in California for use in marine compression ignition diesel engines to enhance engine combustion performance, improve engine lubrication, and reduce air and water pollution caused by the exhaust.
Biodiesel blends operate in diesel engines, from light to heavy-duty, just like petroleum diesel fuel. No engine conversions are required at all, unless an engine has old fuel lines. This designation allows government fleet services to purchase the B blend for operation in normal diesel vehicles and receive credit for those vehicles equivalent to other DOE-approved multi-fuel vehicles.
As a result, Biodiesel can now compete with other alternative fuels and clean-air options for urban transit fleets and government vehicles across the country. For the marine market, this DOE designation should encourage more Biodiesel production and, eventually, lower prices for consumers.
Biodiesel is Produced from Vegetable Oils by a Process called Transesterification see Appendix for schematic of process Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils by converting the triglyceride oils to methyl or ethyl esters with a process known as transesterification.
The transesterification process reacts alcohol with the oil to release three "ester chains" from the glycerin backbone of each triglyceride. The reaction requires heat and an strong base catalyst e. The glycerin can be further purified for sale to the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The mono-alkyl esters become the Biodiesel, with one-eighth the viscosity of the original vegetable oil.
Each ester chain, usually 18 carbons in length for soy esters, retains two oxygen atoms forming the "ester" and giving the product its unique combustion qualities as an oxygenated vegetable based fuel.
Petroleum diesel, in contrast, is made up of hundreds of different hydrocarbon chains roughly in the range of carbons in lengthwith residues of sulfur and crude oil remaining. Niche Market for Biodiesel: Sailboats with Auxiliary Diesel Engines Recreational sailboats powered by auxiliary diesel engines have proven to be a reliable and high profile market for Biodiesel.
Most of the boats were in the 30 to 50 foot range, and most had smaller diesel engines HP that consumed relatively little fuel. Sailboaters tend to be more conscious of environmental concerns, they are sensitive to smoke and odor from engine exhaust, and they are more inclined than power boaters to pay for premium diesel fuel since they typically consume only gallons a year.
Future marine markets in which the benefits of using Biodiesel would outweigh the costs include charter boats, water taxis, dive boats, small ferries, government boats and research vessels.
There should be particular emphasis on using Biodiesel in boats operating on lakes, rivers and confined bays that are more sensitive to air and water pollution. Aside from sailing with the wind, vegetable oil Biodiesel is the easiest, cleanest and most efficient transformation of solar energy to produce kinetic energy for mechanical power in boats.
Biodiesel mixes quickly with petrodiesel once the boat is moving. Biodiesel is a little heavier than the petroleum with has a specific gravity of 0. In Germany, where the price of Biodiesel tax exempt is similar to petroleum diesel with taxesover fuel stations offer Biodiesel for sale to motorists and Biodiesel is used in tour boats on their lakes.
The absence of sulfur means a reduction in the formation of acid rain by sulfate emissions which generate sulfuric acid in our atmosphere. The reduced sulfur in the blend will also decrease the levels of corrosive sulfuric acid accumulating in the engine crankcase oil over time.
The lack of toxic and carcinogenic aromatics benzene, toluene and xylene in Biodiesel means the fuel mixture combustion gases will have reduced impact on human health and the environment.Get these free sample essays from Essay Writer – for UK students and academics – free sample essays covering a wide range of subject areas and topics.
Huge List of Investigatory Project of Biology, Experiments Topics, Models Ideas for Kids and also for Middle school, Elementary School for class 5th Grade,6th,7th,8th,9th 10th,11th, 12th Grade and High School,CBSE, ISC Class 12 and MSC and College Students. Published: Mon, 5 Dec In this experiment, I am going to determine the effect of different concentration of caffeine on the heart rate of Daphnia.
Daphnia is assumed as the substitute of human being in this experiment to investigate the effect of chemicals on the heart beat of living organisms. The fluorescence of algae via excitation by visible light mainly depends on the chlorophyll-a, a common pigment in the plant world.
The presence of other pigments indicates different algae classes.
The report of the peer review (i.e. full report) was circulated, for further consultation, to Member States and the main data submitter on for comments and further clarification.
An Investigation to Show the Effect of Temperature on Daphnia - An Investigation to Show the Effect of Temperature on Daphnia Plan: I will submerge some daphnia contained in a test tube in water of differing temperatures and measure their subsequent heart rates.