Essays 1 page, words Edwin Sutherland s Differential Association Theory is an approach to crime that states that it is a learned behavior. It is generally accepted that crime is associated largely with the poor and underclass in our society.
Cooley develops the theoretical concept of the looking glass self, a type of imaginary sociability Cooley People imagine the view of themselves through the eyes of others in their social circles and form judgements of themselves based on these imaginary observations Cooley In Mind, Self, and SocietyMead describes the perception of self as formed within the context of social process Wright The self exists in objective reality and is then internalized into the conscious Wright The idea of shifting the focus away from the individual deviant and looking at how social structure affects the separation of those persons considered unconventional has a great influence on how Becker approaches labeling theory.
InFrank Tannenbaum presented his own approach to labeling theory in response to his studies of juvenile participation in street gangs www. Tannenbaum describes the process of defining deviant behavior as different among juvenile delinquents and conventional society, causing a "tagging" of juveniles as delinquent by mainstream society www.
The stigma that accompanies the deviant "tag" causes a person fall into deeper nonconformity Pfohl Although Lemert discounts the influence of Tannenbaum on the development of labeling theory www. Lemert, unhappy with theories that take the concept of deviance for granted, focuses on the social construction of deviance Lemert Social Pathology details the concepts of primary and secondary deviance.
According to Lemertprimary deviance is the initial incidence of an act causing an authority figure to label the actor deviant. This initial labeling of a deviant act will remain primary as long as the actor can rationalize or deal with the process as a function of a socially acceptable role Lemert Lemert considers the causes of primary deviance as fluid, and only important to researchers concerned with specific social problems at a certain time.
In the years following Social Pathology, Lemert argues for the decriminalization of victimless crimes, advocates pre-trial diversion programs, and has backed away labeling determinism Wright Howard Becker developed his theory of labeling also known as social reaction theory in the book Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance.
Liberal political movements were embraced by many of the college students and faculty in America Pfohl The labeling theory outlined in Outsiders is recognized as the prevailing social reaction approach by Lemert as well as most other sociologists www.
Studies in the Sociology of Devianceviews deviance as the creation of social groups and not the quality of some act or behavior.
Becker criticizes other theories of deviance for accepting the existence of deviance and by doing so, accept the values of the majority within the social group. According to Beckerstudying the act of the individual is unimportant because deviance is simply rule breaking behavior that is labeled.Labeling theory is among the most crucial slants to understanding criminal and deviant behavior.
One of the basic and main argument of labeling theory is that there is no doing that is naturally felonious. Edwin Sutherland s Differential Association Theory is an approach to crime that states that it is a learned behavior. Differential Association Theory in its most basic form claims that if an individual is in close contact with crime than he / she will eventually learn and participate in criminal activity.
Labeling and Deviance: Fraternities and Gangs Cristina Masiello Pace University Society and The Labeling Theory There is a dichotomy that exists in today’s society between the privileged and the William Chambliss’ essay, The Saints and the Roughnecks, explores the effects of.
Labeling Theory like the most crucial slants Labeling theory is among the most crucial slants to understanding criminal and deviant behavior. One of the basic and main argument of labeling theory is that there is no doing that is naturally felonious. In this example, it becomes evident that Anderson's underlying theory in conducting his analysis is the labeling theory.
A product of the symbolic interactionist paradigm, labeling theory posits that "a response to an act and not the behavior that determines deviance (it) is the recognition that some people or groups have the power to define.
The labeling theory outlined in Outsiders is recognized as the prevailing social reaction approach by Lemert as well as most other sociologists (leslutinsduphoenix.com).
Becker's approach has its roots in the symbolic interaction foundation of Cooley and Mead, and the labeling influences of Tannenbaum and Lemert/5(1).