Primacy of Simon Peter and Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire Catholics recognize the pope as the successor to Saint Peterwhom Jesus designated as the "rock" upon which the Church was to be built. Many of the bishops of Rome in the first three centuries of the Christian era are obscure figures. Several suffered martyrdom along with members of their flock in periods of persecution. Most of them engaged in intense theological arguments with other bishops.
Beginning And Progress Of The Renaissance Beginning And Progress Of The Renaissance Fourteenth To Sixteenth Century The new birth of resurrection known as the "Renaissance" is usually considered to have begun in Italy in the fourteenth century, though some writers would date its origin from the reign of Frederick II, ; and by this Prince - the most enlightened man of his age - it was at least anticipated.
Well versed in languages and science, he was a patron of scholars, whom he gathered about him, from all parts of the world, at his court in Palermo. At all events the Renaissance was heralded through the recovery by Italian scholars of Greek and Roman classical literature.
When the movement began, the civilization of Greece and Rome had long been exerting a partial influence, not only upon Italy, but on other parts of mediaeval Europe as well.
But in Italy especially, when the wave of barbarism had passed, the people began to feel a returning consciousness of their ancient culture, and a desire to reproduce it.
To Italians the Latin language was easy, and their country abounded in documents and monumental records which symbolized past greatness. The modern Italian spirit was produced through the combination of various elements, among which were the political institutions brought by the Lombards from Germany, the influence of chivalry and other northern forms of civilization, and the more immediate power of the Church.
That which was foreshadowed in the thirteenth century became in the fourteenth a distinct national development, which, as Symonds, its most discerning interpreter, shows us, was constructing a model for the whole western world.
The word "renaissance" has of late years received a more extended significance than that which is implied in our English equivalent - the "revival of learning. To do so would be like trying to name the days on which spring in any particular season began and ended.
Yet we speak of spring as different from winter and from summer. The truth is that in many senses we are still in mid-Renaissance. The evolution has not been completed.
The new life is our own and is progressive. As in the transformation scene of some pantomime, so here the waning and the waxing shapes are mingled; the new forms, at first shadowy and filmy, gain upon the old; and now both blend; and now the old scene fades into the background; still, who shall say whether the new scene be finally set up?
In like manner we cannot refer the whole phenomena of the Renaissance to any one cause or circumstance, or limit them within the field of any one department of human knowledge.
If we ask the students of art what they mean by the Renaissance, they will reply that it was the revolution effected in architecture, painting, and sculpture by the recovery of antique monuments.
Students of literature, philosophy, and theology see in the Renaissance that discovery of manuscripts, that passion for antiquity, that progress in philology and criticism, which led to a correct knowledge of the classics, to a fresh taste in poetry, to new systems of thought, to more accurate analysis, and finally to the Lutheran schism and the emancipation of the conscience.
The origination of a truly scientific method is the point which interests them most in the Renaissance. The political historian, again, has his own answer to the question.
The extinction of feudalism, the development of the great nationalities of Europe, the growth of monarchy, the limitation of the ecclesiastical authority, and the erection of the papacy into an Italian kingdom, and in the last place the gradual emergence of that sense of popular freedom which exploded in the Revolution: Jurists will describe the dissolution of legal fictions based upon the False Decretals, the acquisition of a true text of the Roman code, and the attempt to introduce a rational method into the theory of modern jurisprudence, as well as to commence the study of international law.Not long after, the Ottoman's destroyed the city and quickly defeated the Byzantines and became rulers of Constantinople for quite some long time.
John Wyclif and John Hus Wyclif was an Oxford theologian who strongly believed that the Papacy's power should be limited to what the Bible has to offer.
civilization, and the more immediate power of the Church. That which was There are three stages in the history of scholarship during the. Renaissance.
The first is the age of passionate desire. Petrarch poring over that, at a time when the rest of Europe was inert, Italy had already begun to. During Machiavelli's life the Italian peninsula was a scene of intense political conflict involving the dominant city - states of Florence, Milan, Venice, and Naples, plus the Papacy, France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire.
Italy was composed of five main political powers: Florence, Milan, Venice, the Papal States (including Rome), and the Kingdom of Naples, far in the southern tip of the Italian peninsula. Naples, in particular, had a vexed history, with powers such as France, Spain, and the popes all laying claim to it on various dynastic pretexts.
It varied by location and time-period, but was stronger in the later Middle Ages, and was driven into decline by the Reformation. “Medieval times” covers such a long span of centuries and such a wide breadth of various regions that the papacy’s power cannot be very easily generalized.
The Renaissance period was a time of renewed influence and power for the Papacy in Italy and also internationally. The power and the prestige of the Papacy grew during the reigns of the 14 Popes of the Renaissance era.
The Pope was the head of the Catholic Church and the spiritual leader of millions of Christians in Europe. However, the.